Basic Networking Terms

  • Networking: A number of computers (2 or more) linked together to share resources.
  • Connection: In networking, a connection refers to pieces of related information that are transferred through a network. This generally infers that a connection is built before the data transfer (by following the procedures laid out in a protocol) and then is deconstructed at the at the end of the data transfer.

 

  • Packet: A packet is, generally speaking, the most basic unit that is transfered over a network. When communicating over a network, packets are the envelopes that carry your data (in pieces) from one end point to the other.

 

  • Network Interface: A network interface can refer to any kind of software interface to networking hardware. For instance, if you have two network cards in your computer, you can control and configure each network interface associated with them individually.
  • LAN: LAN stands for “local area network”. It refers to a network or a portion of a network that is not publicly accessible to the greater internet. A home or office network is an example of a LAN.
  • WAN: WAN stands for “wide area network”. It means a network that is much more extensive than a LAN. While WAN is the relevant term to use to describe large, dispersed networks in general, it is usually meant to mean the internet, as a whole. If an interface is said to be connected to the WAN, it is generally assumed that it is reachable through the internet.
    • Protocol: A protocol is a set of rules and standards that basically define a language that devices can use to communicate. There are a great number of protocols in use extensively in networking, and they are often implemented in different layers.

    Some low level protocols are TCP, UDP, IP, and ICMP. Some familiar examples of application layer protocols, built on these lower protocols, are HTTP (for accessing web content), SSH, TLS/SSL, and FTP.

    • Port: A port is an address on a single machine that can be tied to a specific piece of software. It is not a physical interface or location, but it allows your server to be able to communicate using more than one application.
    • Firewall: A firewall is a program that decides whether traffic coming into a server or going out should be allowed. A firewall usually works by creating rules for which type of traffic is acceptable on which ports. Generally, firewalls block ports that are not used by a specific application on a server.
    • NAT: NAT stands for network address translation. It is a way to translate requests that are incoming into a routing server to the relevant devices or servers that it knows about in the LAN. This is usually implemented in physical LANs as a way to route requests through one IP address to the necessary backend servers.
    • VPN: VPN stands for virtual private network. It is a means of connecting separate LANs through the internet, while maintaining privacy. This is used as a means of connecting remote systems as if they were on a local network, often for security reasons.
    • IP : The IP protocol is one of the fundamental protocols that allow the internet to work. IP addresses are unique on each network and they allow machines to address each other across a network. It is implemented on the internet layer in the IP/TCP model.

      Networks can be linked together, but traffic must be routed when crossing network boundaries. This protocol assumes an unreliable network and multiple paths to the same destination that it can dynamically change between.

      There are a number of different implementations of the protocol. The most common implementation today is IPv4, although IPv6 is growing in popularity as an alternative due to the scarcity of IPv4 addresses available and improvements in the protocols capabilities.

    • ICMP : ICMP stands for internet control message protocol. It is used to send messages between devices to indicate the availability or error conditions. These packets are used in a variety of network diagnostic tools, such as ping and traceroute.
    • TCP : TCP stands for transmission control protocol. It is implemented in the transport layer of the IP/TCP model and is used to establish reliable connections.

      TCP is one of the protocols that encapsulates data into packets. It then transfers these to the remote end of the connection using the methods available on the lower layers. On the other end, it can check for errors, request certain pieces to be resent, and reassemble the information into one logical piece to send to the application layer.

    • UDP : UDP stands for user datagram protocol. It is a popular companion protocol to TCP and is also implemented in the transport layer.

      The fundamental difference between UDP and TCP is that UDP offers unreliable data transfer. It does not verify that data has been received on the other end of the connection. This might sound like a bad thing, and for many purposes, it is. However, it is also extremely important for some functions.

    • HTTP : HTTP stands for hypertext transfer protocol. It is a protocol defined in the application layer that forms the basis for communication on the web.

      HTTP defines a number of functions that tell the remote system what you are requesting. For instance, GET, POST, and DELETE all interact with the requested data in a different way.

    • FTP : FTP stands for file transfer protocol. It is also in the application layer and provides a way of transferring complete files from one host to another.

      It is inherently insecure, so it is not recommended for any externally facing network unless it is implemented as a public, download-only resource.

    • DNS: DNS stands for domain name system. It is an application layer protocol used to provide a human-friendly naming mechanism for internet resources. It is what ties a domain name to an IP address and allows you to access sites by name in your browser.
    • SSHSSH stands for secure shell. It is an encrypted protocol implemented in the application layer that can be used to communicate with a remote server in a secure way. Many additional technologies are built around this protocol because of its end-to-end encryption and ubiquity.
    • Router: Usually a physical device that connects two networks and allows data to be sent and received between them. A router will determine the best path for the data to take from its source to its destination.
    • DHCP: This acronym stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is a protocol used on a TCP/IP network to send the client configuration data, including the IP address, subnet mask, gateway, and DNS configuration, to the computers or clients on the network. It basically automatically provides configuration data to the computers on a TCP/IP network. Using a DCHP configuration save times by eliminating the need to manually configure each computer on the network.
    • IP Address: This is an address used by the Internet Protocol to identify a computer or device’s location on the network. This number is usually assigned to a computer by the Internet Service Provider (ISP) or by the network administrator.
    • Network Interface Card: Also known as an Ethernet card, or NIC card. The NIC is probably the most common component of any network. It is the component that provides the connection between a computers internal bus and the network media or cabling.

Leave a Reply